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POLITICAL POWER AND THE MONARCHY IN BULGARIA 1886-1894

Author: Stoicho Grancharov

Editor's Note: See the provisional organization chart on Political Parties and Government Policies in "I. Stoyanov. Liberal Party in the Principality of Bulgaria 1879-1886. Sofia, 1989".

 

Conservatives in Bulgaria

Konstantin Stoilov

Konstantin Stoilov (5 October 1853 - 5 April 1901) is Bulgarian politician, one of the leaders of the Conservative Party and later to the newly established People Party. Stoilov was twice prime minister of Bulgaria. The first time during the political crisis after the abdication of Prince Alexander I (10 July 1887 - 1 September 1887) and the second - after the fall of Stefan Stambolov (19 May 1894 - 18 January 1899).

He studied at the Plovdiv diocesan school and at Robert College, Constantinople, in 1873. Stoilov graduated Law in Heidelberg in 1877. Doctor of Law at the same University. During his studies at Robert College and Heidelberg young Stoiov led a very strict and organized life. All the time, everything in it was subject to the principle. Traditionally at the beginning of the school year students in class said last word in deciding freely chosen topic. The theme of K. Stoilov was "Silence of the story on the Bulgarian people". With his speech he captured the astounded listeners and everyone present, among which there were ambassadors of the Great countries.

After returning to Bulgaria Stoilov become a judge in Plovdiv and Sofia (1878-1879 ) and work in the Policy Office of Prince Alexander I (1880-1883). In 1884 he became a regular member of the Bulgarian Literary Society. Ongoing member of the Conservative Party, he supported the Regime of credentials and for short periods occupied ministerial posts in the Government without a prime minister (1 July 1881 - 23 June 1882), that of Leonid Sobolev (23 June 1882 - 7 September 1883), and in the second cabinet of Dragan Tsankov (7 September 1883 - 29 June 1884).

During his military service as volunteer in 2nd Cavalry Regiment in Shumen from October 1881 until January 1882, he carried out all duties and conscientiously studied warfare. After completion of an exam he was promoted to Lieutenant from Reserve Cavalry. During the Serbo-Bulgarian War his regiment was mobilized and commanded by the 3rd Platoon of 3 Squadron. On 11 December 1885 he was awarded the Military Order “For Bravery” IV degree.

In the crisis following the abdication of Prince Alexander I, Konstantin Stoilov supported the efforts of Stefan Stambolov to stabilize the country. He participated in the delegation that led negotiations for the Bulgarian throne with Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. During this period (1886-1888) Stoilov participated in the interim Government of Petko Karavelov, and then became Justice Minister in the government of Stefan Stambolov. He participated in the adoption of construction government policy aimed at building infrastructure - roads, railways, posts and telegraphs - material basis of national security and power of the state.

In 1888 Konstantin Stoilov went into opposition to the cabinet of Stefan Stambolov. After his fall in 1894, he headed the interim Government charged with conducting elections. He headed the newly formed People Party, which won a majority. Konstantin Stoilov was Prime Minister from 1894 to 1899. Under his government Bulgaria continued the road of economic progress started with Stefan Stambolov. This government considered the first Law to patronize home industry. Loans were given for a period of 10 years.

Konstantin Stoilov was married in 1888 to Hristina Tapchileshtova and have five children.

 

Ivan Geshov

Ivan Evstatiev Geshov (20 February 1849 - 11 March 1924) is a Bulgarian politician, leader of the People Party. He was Prime Minister of Bulgaria in the 32nd government (1911-1913), and chairman of the XI (1901) and XIII (1913) Ordinary National Assembly. Geshov was chairman of the Bulgarian Literary Society (1898-1911), Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (1911-1924) and the Bulgarian Red Cross (1899 -1924).

Ivan Geshov was born in Plovdiv in the family of Evstrati Ivanov Geshov - big commercial banker at that time. He studied at the Plovdiv secondary school "St. St. Cyril and Methodius" under tutelage of Joakim Gruev, and except compulsory subjects studied three foreign languages, statistics and drawing.

In 1865 his father moved to Manchester, where he found a branch of the family trade and financial house. His family went with him. Ivan Geshov studied at Owens College and Victoria University. As foreigner he earned All Britain's competition in English spelling, which was awarded the honor to drink tea with the queen. He was a member to the company of urban literature at the Manchester club. Then he worked few years in the office of his father in the city. While staying in England Geshov remains convinced of the importance of public opinion in formulating policy on the one hand, and thought that “the best guarantee for good governance is an enlightened people.”

After the liberation of Bulgaria Ivan Geshov is one of the leaders of the Liberal Party in Eastern Rumelia. He was the first president of the District Assembly (1879-1880) and Director of Finance (1882-1883 ). Since 1883 Geshov moved to live in Sofia, where he became director of the Bulgarian National Bank (1883-1886). Participated in the negotiations for Peace treaty of Bucharest (1886). After the coup of 1886 participated in the third government of Petko Karavelov and the first government of Vasil Radoslavov.

After the fall of Stefan Stambolov in 1894 Geshov included in the newly formed People Party. He was Finance Minister in the second and third government of Konstantin Stoilov (1894-1897), and after his death in 1901 headed the party. From 1911 to 1913 Ivan Geshov leads a coalition government with the Progressive Liberal Party. At that time was formed the Balkan Union which led to the Balkan Wars (1912-1913).

After World War I Geshov heads the United People’s Progressive Party (1920). In 1922 he went to France to avoid persecution against the opposition by the government of Alexander Stamboliyski. After 9 June coup returned to Bulgaria and joined the Democratic Alliance. He died in 1924.

Ivan Evstatiev Geshov was married to Maria Pulieva, and have three sons and two daughters.

 

Picture 1: Sample illustration on the text above.

(i). Konstantin Stoilov and Ivan Geshov — late conservatives from the haute bourgeoisie, supporters of trade and industrial capital with foreign investments.

 

 

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